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25 Examples of Natural and Artificial Ecosystems (With Pictures)

An ecosystem is a system formed because there is a reciprocal relationship between living things and the physical environment around them. This unitary order is comprehensive between the elements of the environment and life which influence each other. Ecosystems include living things which include animals, plants, and other organisms as well as the non-living (abiotic) environment such as weather, sun, earth, climate, waters, atmosphere, etc. Here are examples of natural and artificial ecosystems complete with pictures. Let’s take a look at the first one:

Examples of natural and artificial ecosystems

Examples of Natural Ecosystems

1. Deciduous Forest Ecosystem

Deciduous forest ecosystem

Deciduous forest is a forest that is characterized by trees that drop their leaves during a certain season. The location of the deciduous forest is between 30o – 40o northern latitudes and southern latitudes with a temperate climate. Examples are China, Korea, Japan, and Australia. The deciduous forest ecosystem consists of flora such as oaks, pine trees, spruce trees, eucalypts, etc. While the fauna in the deciduous forest ecosystem consists of raccoons, tigers, deer, pandas, bears, squirrels, etc.

2. Tropical Rainforest Ecosystem

Tropical rainforest ecosystem

Tropical rainforests are a collection of various kinds of trees with warm, humid temperatures and very high rainfall. The location of tropical rain forests is around the equator between 23.5o north latitude and 23.5o south latitude and concentrated between 10o north latitude and 10o South latitude. Examples of tropical rain forests are those found in Brazil around the Amazon river and the island of Borneo. Tropical rainforest ecosystems are very rich and diverse. The plants in the tropical rain forest ecosystem such as teak trees, pine, orchids, mahogany trees, etc. Meanwhile, animals in tropical rain forest ecosystems include butterflies, monkeys, elephants, deer pigs, black parrots, cassowaries, etc.

3. Grassland Ecosystem

Grassland Ecosystem

Grasslands are plains overgrown with short grass and non-woody plants without woody trees. Grasslands generally appear in areas that have low rainfall so that only grass plants can grow there and an altitude of about 900 – 4,000 meters above sea level. Examples of grasslands in Indonesia are those on the island of Sumba, East Nusa Tenggara. The grassland ecosystem consists of grass and shrubs. While the animals found in the grasslands are usually also grass-eaters (herbivores) such as deer, wild goats, elephants, giraffes, etc. Since the prairie supports several species of flowering plants, bees can also be found here.

4. Marine Ecosystem

Marine Ecosystem

The sea is the salt water that surrounds the land that makes up 70 percent of the Earth’s surface. Because the sea is very wide and deep, it is rich in ecosystems. Marine ecosystems contain marine animals that are different from freshwater animals. The marine ecosystem is divided into three zones according to the level of depth, namely the littoral zone, the neritic zone, and the oceanic zone. Each zone has a different ecosystem. Marine ecosystems generally consist of fish, coral reefs, algae, invertebrates, to mammals.

5. Desert Ecosystem

desert ecosystem

Desert is an area with very low rainfall, which is less than 250mm/year. The main characteristic of deserts is extreme temperature changes so that weathered rock forms a sea of ​​​​sand. Because it is very dry, there is almost no life in the desert, including plants. Even so, the creatures living in the desert must be able to adapt to this extreme environment. Deserts are generally located between 20 to 30 degrees north latitude and south latitude such as in North Africa, Central Asia, the Middle East, Australia, and the United States. Desert ecosystems generally consist of plants such as cacti and date palms. While the animals in the desert ecosystem consist of camels, snakes, lizards, and insects.

6. Lake Ecosystem

Lake ecosystem

Lakes are waters that are in the middle of the mainland, precisely in a basin on the mainland. Lakes generally contain fresh, clean, and calm water. Lakes are spread over many islands and continents. The largest lake in the world is the Caspian Sea lake, while the largest lake in Indonesia is Lake Toba. The lake ecosystem generally consists of fish, shrimp, algae, water hyacinth, etc.

7. Savanna Forest Ecosystem

Savanna forest ecosystem

Savanna forests are forests that are more overgrown with grass, shrubs, or shrubs so they are often also called grasslands. Savanna forests are formed in areas where the climate is a mixture of tropical and sub-tropical. Savanna forests appear due to lack of rainfall. The savanna forest ecosystem generally consists of plants such as eucalypts, baobabs, and grasses. Meanwhile, the animals in the savanna forest ecosystem consist of horses, zebras, elephants, hyenas, and deer.

8. Tundra Ecosystem

tundra ecosystem

Tundra is an ecosystem in the form of a large plain without trees. Tundra occurs because the environment is dark for a long time because the sun is not reachable to illuminate this area. So usually the tundra is found in the area around the poles. The tundra ecosystem generally consists of sedge grass, moss, arctic bison, reindeer, penguins, foxes, etc.

9. Taiga Ecosystem

taiga ecosystem

Taiga is a forest composed of only one species of tree such as pine, conifer, etc. These plants dominate because they can withstand cold temperatures. While other plants such as shrubs and wet plants are very few. Taiga can be found in subtropical climates with an astronomical position between 60o up to 70o north latitude or south latitude. Examples are found in Russia, Siberia, Alaska, and Canada. The animal ecosystem in the taiga generally consists of moose, black bears, brown bears, wolves, and migratory birds.

10. River Ecosystem

river ecosystem

The river is a natural water flow that extends and flows continuously from upstream to downstream. Upstream areas are usually in the highlands which are rain catchment areas. While downstream is the beach or the sea. River ecosystems consist of fish, insects, shrimp, snails, and birds that live and depend on rivers.

11. Swamp Ecosystem

swamp ecosystem

A swamp is a low area that is waterlogged. Generally located at an altitude equivalent to sea level. The waters are always covered by plants. Swamps are generally found in the middle and lower reaches of rivers or along the coast. Swamp ecosystems generally consist of animals such as fish, birds, snakes, etc. While the plants in the swamp ecosystem consist of an hourly plant, genjer plant, etc.

12. Mountain Ecosystem

Mountain Ecosystem

Mountains are mounds of earth that protrude upwards and rise higher than the surrounding area. The height of the mountain is generally more than 600 meters above sea level. Mountains are formed due to the activity of the earth’s plates or magma. Mountain ecosystems generally consist of pine trees, grass, monkeys, and birds.

13. Cave Ecosystem

Cave ecosystem

Caves are hollow holes underground. Caves are generally formed due to weathering of rocks and sometimes there is water in them. Caves generally get very little sunlight so there is no green vegetation. Cave ecosystems generally consist of lichens, algae, bats, worms, snakes, and centipedes.

14. Steppe Ecosystem

steppe ecosystem

Steppes are plains without trees except in areas near rivers or lakes. Steppes are formed due to low rainfall. Steppes are found in Europe, Central Asia, South Asia and the Middle East. Steppe ecosystems generally consist of plants such as buffalo grass, cacti, weeds, and sunflower relatives. While animals in the steppe ecosystem consist of rabbits, eagles, owls and snakes.

15. Litoral Zone Ecosystem

Littoral zone ecosystem

The littoral zone is a zone that is flooded when there is high tide and dries up when there is no tide. This zone is also known as the tidal zone. The littoral zone ecosystem generally consists of starfish, shrimp, crabs, worms, and mangroves.

16. Coastal Ecosystem

Coastal ecosystem

The beach is a geographical form in the coastal area of ​​the sea that consists of sand. The beach is the boundary between land and sea. Plants in coastal ecosystems generally consist of algae and mangroves. While animals in coastal ecosystems generally consist of shrimp, crabs, and fish.

17. Coral Reef Ecosystem

Coral reef ecosystem

Coral reefs are a group of coral animals that are in symbiosis with a type of algae and form a calcium carbonate structure. Coral reefs are a living habitat for various marine animals and a repository of marine biodiversity. Coral reef ecosystems generally consist of algae/algae, coral animals, fish, sea snakes, and turtles.

18. Estuary Ecosystem

Estuary Ecosystem

Estuaries are transitional areas between marine and freshwater habitats. In estuaries there are often extensive mud slabs or salt marshes. The salinity level of the water in the estuary changes gradually, which is influenced by the tidal cycle. Estuary ecosystems generally consist of animals such as flat fish, ragworms, frogs, crabs, and snakes. While the plants in the estuary ecosystem consist of grass and mangroves.

19. Karst Ecosystem

Karst Ecosystem

Karst is a landscape that is formed as a result of the dissolving process of carbonate rocks or other soluble rocks (such as limestone). The dissolution produces a unique and interesting shape. The characteristics of karst are generally barren, have many caves, rocky soil, and no surface water flow. The karst ecosystem consists of plants such as teak, mahogany, sengon, etc. While the animals that live in the karst ecosystem are arthropods and bats.

Examples of Artificial Ecosystems

1. Forest Park Ecosystem

Great forest park ecosystem

Grand forest park is a conservation area with the aim of collecting native or non-native plants and/or animals. The forest park is useful as an area for research, science, conservation, and tourism. An example of a forest park is the Ngurah Rai Grand Forest Park in Bali, which is a mangrove forest conservation area. Animals that live in the Ngurah Rai Forest Park ecosystem are crabs, mollusks, fish, etc.

2. Rice Field Ecosystem

Rice field ecosystem

Rice fields are land that is cultivated by humans to grow rice. Rice fields are cultivated in such a way that they are filled with water to support rice growth. Rice fields are a characteristic of agriculture in the Asian region, especially East Asia and Southeast Asia. Rice field ecosystems generally consist of rice, weeds, rats, snakes, and birds.

3. Dam Ecosystem

Dam ecosystem

Dams are constructions built by humans to hold back the flow of water so that they become puddles in the form of reservoirs. Dams are used by humans to store water reserves and as hydroelectric power plants. The dam ecosystem generally consists of fish, klambang, and water hyacinth.

4. Fish Pond Ecosystem

Fish pond ecosystem

Fish ponds are man-made puddles that are used as artificial habitats for fish. Generally contains a water pump engine to rotate the water. Fish pond ecosystems generally consist of ornamental fish such as koi and ornamental water plants.

5. Reservoir Ecosystem

reservoir ecosystem

A reservoir is a very large man-made lake. Reservoir is also the result of a dam. Reservoirs are made to store water and as a means of recreation. Just like dams, reservoir ecosystems consist of fish, klambang, and water hyacinth.

6. Zoo Ecosystem

Zoo ecosystem

A zoo is a place in the form of a park to collect and maintain the welfare of common or rare wild animals. The zoo was created as a means of recreation and education. The zoo’s ecosystem does not only consist of animals, but also some shade trees and ornamental plants.

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