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4 Principles of Geography and Examples (Full Article)

Geography is a science that studies the phenomena of the geosphere and life on earth and the interactions between humans and the environment related to spatial and territorial arrangements. The geosphere phenomenon is a natural phenomenon as a result of natural processes that occur on earth. Basically, geography discusses the interaction between humans and their environment. The study of geography uses several principles. These principles are used as the basis for the description, the basis for the assessment, and the basis for the disclosure of geographical phenomena and facts. The following are the principles of geography and examples. Let’s take a look at the first one:

Principles of geography

1. Principle of Distribution (Distribution)

The principle of distribution or distribution is the first key principle in geography. In the principle of distribution, geographical phenomena and facts are spread on the earth’s surface unevenly from one area to another. An example of the distribution principle is the distribution of different water potentials from one place to another.

2. Principle of Interrelation (Relationship)

By looking at and describing various distributions of geographical phenomena and facts using the distribution principle, we will be able to reveal the relationship (relationship) between one symptom and fact with another so that it can be predicted further. The relationship can be between physical factors and non-physical factors as well as between physical factors and human factors. An example of the principle of interrelation is the drought that occurs as a result of the La Nina phenomenon.

3. Principle Description

The principle of description or explanation is a further description of geographical phenomena and facts. The description will explain the cause and effect of the interrelation. This principle focuses on studies equipped with maps, tables, and statistical data analysis. An example of the principle of description is in the form of a written or scientific paper on the Indonesian sea that displays a map of the Indonesian sea area.

4. Principles of Corology (Area/Space)

This principle means that all geographical phenomena and facts in terms of their distribution and interrelation are inseparable from the existence of space itself. Space gives characteristics to the unity of symptoms, the unity of function, and the unity of form. This principle combines the three principles of geography previously mentioned. The principle of chorology is the basic principle of geography which is one of the characteristics of modern geography. An example of the principle of chorology is when we are going to research things related to air temperature. So, we must examine the differences in air temperature in rural and urban areas and the causes of these differences

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